It is a truism nowadays to declare that the more we study the origins of mankind, the more complex the history becomes and the more evident it is that in reality we know very little about them. The only thing that is clear is that conventional (or accepted) accounts of  origins leave a lot to be desired. In fact, very ancient documents alone appear to throw a mysterious but credible light on the subject. All these documents have basic themes or topics in common, from how man was created, intervention or direction by “gods”, floods and cataclysms – to mention but a few. What is deducible is that mankind has undergone several phases of upheaval, either natural such as earthquake, flood or comet collision, or  “manmade”, such as war, dereliction or massive self-destruction (nuclear?)
As we observe civilisations have come and gone in comparatively recent times (circa in the last 5000 years: a mere nothing on earth`s evolutionary scale). It is evident that nations have dominated, risen to a peak and then declined. It is sensible to suppose that something similar has happened in pre-history – in the millenia before written evidence is available to scholars. Looked at in this way, keeping an open mind about the achievements of remote peoples, there are very many puzzling aspects. In an effort to explain these achievements many writers on prehistory (and ancient history) claim that we are now simply rediscovering skills and knowledge we have (as a human race) lost or forgotten, so that in reality, modern science is but truly a covering of ground we once knew: a REDISCOVERY.


One of these is the celebrated author Zecharia Sitchin whose theories on the remote past are indeed revolutionary, but go a long way to explaining man`s strange history. He is not by any means the only one to advance revolutionary theses; there is a whole group of writers/scholars now of like persuasion. For example, the idea of extraterrestial visitations aeons ago, is not now regarded with  hostility  from the academic world; it is a theme explored by many. Belief in a race of infinitely advanced astronauts having once colonised the earth (or part of it) is not mandatory for understanding the distant past, BUT it may help; and who can actually disprove the theory? The ideas of Sitchin as typical of other witers, will be discussed and examined.


     According to Einstein`s famous equation, e=mc squared, where e is energy , m is  mass and c is the speed of light (more or less) , the “Big Bang” theory of the origin of the universe, means that there must have been energy (or an energy source), the resultant mass was crushed/compressed, an enormous explosion resulted and the universe was formed. Perhaps this original energy was God. Before the Big Bang, time did not exist; when energy was converted to mass , “events” happened; this means that in the spiritual world time does not exist, but it does in the physical. We cannot understand time and eternity. .  Only God can do this, we suppose – God =energy – a powerful reason for belief in the Deity.
While on the theme of astronomy! we may here mention the fact that the sun`s field reverses every 18, 000 years and can/does cause some destruction as the earth is twisted around its axis. This may be one reason for periodic catastrophes/cataclysms.
Genetic mutations can occur  as the earth`s magnetic field changes and the more powerful and damaging rays penetrate the earth`s atmosphere. Mutations could include giantism. (More on this later.) Indeed, it has been claimed that the rise and fall of civilisations can be seen to reflect sun-spot activity. (See Maurice Cotterell, THE SUPERGODS, p. 193) I feel that here I must quote a paragraph from Cotterell as it so aptly summarises his position and leads us very neatly into sections to come in this study.

     At a certain point during the evolutionary process the voltage of the human brain must have grown to exceed that of the intrinsic magnetic field of the Earth and that of electrical activity caused by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth. It seems that this small but growing voltage became capable of attracting electrical energy equal to, and of opposite charge to, itself from a place beyond the Earth`s atmosphere. (p. 206)


     It is claimed by certain writers that the human race originated on the planet Mars and that we therefore are a type of colonial descendant. Two points must here be made: evidence for a prehistoric civilisation her on earth is compelling; and that engineering skills in the remote past were greater than those we possess today. Also, and we have mentioned this before, the legend of  god-like visitors to earth in ancient times is widespread among civilisations of the past. They believed the “sky people” were gods – because of their power. As we understand, interbreeding did take place (Genesis 6:4) OR we are the result of seeding – (something we have glanced at earlier and will do later).It is accepted by some scientists that life on this planet received a “jump start” (as Herbie Brennan puts it) from Mars; or that seeding from more evolved Martians is possible. (p. 206) It is generally thought that the first (historic) civilisation began in Sumer.Our thesis is that this assumption is wildly erroneous: civilisations existed thousands of years earlier. We do not know when Martians came to earth to find primitive life in a remote period. We also do not know for sure IF they came.


     Proof that beings once landed on earth is the thing. It goes without saying that this would be the most important discovery of the age. One day it might be found proving that ancient gods were spacemen. False premises underpin many of our basic conceptions. Accepted religious belief depends on ours being a significant world: all evidence suggests it is not. We are but a grain of dust in the universe. As we have said, “God” can mean the Absolute – or it can mean “gods” who originate from an advanced planet. As Drake says in GODS AND SPACEMEN IN THE ANCIENT EAST, man stands on the threshold of a new Age, challenging the stars. “All our conventional beliefs must be re-examined…” (p.222)
It is certainly true that stories all over the world about the creation of the comos  refer to beings who came down to earth from on high  “heaven”: the “gods”. Creation is never related as a purely man-made affair. This realisation does seem to corroborate the thesis that man was indeed endowed with intelligence by manipulation of the generic code by vastly superior intelligences. Study of ancient texts (as we have stated) supports the theory of deep knowledge possessed by remote civilisations. One such piece of ancient literature is the famous “Popol Vuh”, the creation myth of the Maya which is impossible to read without the realisation that most of our “accepted” wisdom is erroneous. Today we may visit  puzzling archaeological sites round the world (especially in South America) and be struck by the sheer size of the remains – giant size!
Of  course we do not know when the visitation/s happened. It might have been 100,000 or 500,000 years ago. When the spacetravellers returned (after thousands of earth years) they did not like what they saw and decided to destroy mankind – their creation. Hence the numerous tales of floods, fire and water.  This may be the scenario to accept – or debate. The “High Priest” of the theory of extraterrestial visitations is Erich von Daniken whom we have previously discussed. The concluding paragraph to his IN SEARCH OF ANCIENT GODS sums up his position neatly – and may reflect some readers` views also.

     In my world alien astronauts lived on our planet thousands of years ago and our ancestors looked upon them as “gods”. They dictated the whole truth to earthly scribes and commanded them to to hand on this truth unadulterated to future generations. The human failing of knowing better distorted the truth. Religions came into being. Knowledge and truth were relaced by belief. The great majority of mankind still believes in a truth that is no truth.


“Lived” is the key word; the astronauts did not remain on earth permanently of course. They did what they intended, then disappeared for a long time. However, they did not leave their creatures on their own, to sink or swim as it were. They devised ways of nuturing and protecting them; (UFOs?) It seems as if they also left behind “servants of the gods” to protect the elite ones, chosen by them as worthy of endowment in various ways. Daniken`s theory is that these “servants” were actually robots. (See p. 172 of  RETURN TO THE STARS) Time naturally is the crucial factor here; we have mentioned time dilation and the theory of relativity. Ancient writings speak frequently of units of time experienced by the gods as different from ours.
In the preceding paragraph we mentioned the “chosen” humanity. Chosen by whom? The spacemen we referred to early in this study (Part 1) known as Nephilim. Throughout these pages we consistently emphasised that mankind was to say the least “modified” by astronauts: it is the central theme of a line of inquiry that if accepted, is of paramount importance  Let us look at some of their achievements.
It does seem as if the Nephilim knew about atomic power which lends credibility to a belief in some of their accomplishments. That they knew about space travel is self-evident; they had of course rocket technology (to take up biblical figures, at least!) It appears they did possess the gift of immortality (or relatively so) which may have led to the concept of life after death found in religions. On this topic, it is not possible to discern any hints of a nephilim religion, on the . part of the Nephilim. They seemed to be exclusively concerned with their human “slaves” proper conduct. One of their main concerns was to impart intelligence to humanity. Not all, however, as we have said. Maybe, as Freer maintains, those humans in the “urban centres” under the control of the Nephilim, were cherished; while those in the”wilderness” areas had to fend for themselves. The first group were on a “fast track” to intelligent civilisation and in the course of their development gave rise to the “Heroes|” we read so much about in various world literatures. These Heroes were of semi-divine orgin i.e. part human, part Nephilim. However we have to remember that this “endowed” humanity were adapted to fulfill their masters` needs and were little better than slaves. Naturally when we read of  Nephilim-human “marriages” we are entitled to think a higher state had been reached (by humanity). Maybe the concept of privilege and of aristocracy/kingship grew out of this elevation. (More on kingship later.) Also the concept of a priesthood eventually arose., As Freer says, “The situation of a priest-official class controlling the revered places did not arise until the Nephilim began to withdraw”. (p. 131) They taught us civilisation and technology – but when they withdrew the area rulers they had created could give free reign to their proclivities – often bad.
Physically the Nephilim were like us: more accurately, we were like them!  “Let us  make the Adam in our likeness and after our image.” As a race they were tall; probably appeared giant sized to ancient humanity. (One reason why there is confusion among biblical translators over the meaning of Nephilim.) They looked like gods should look! – to our ancestors. And they possessed awesome power.
As has been said, our planet is “on hold” because we have reached the stage of re-examining traditions, religious beliefs, philosophies and scientific attitudes that appear not to be in keeping with our present visions of human potential. (Idea of Freer) I would like to quote a sentence which aptly will lead us into our next topic; the revolutionary thoughts of Zecharia Sitchin: “When all the explorers have shown their slides, Sitchin`s thesis is the lights going on in the auditorium”. (p.139)


     Sitchin bases his ideas on the assumption that ancient myths are not myths but historical and scientific texts. Ancient Sumerian clay tablets reveal that gods from another planet (Nibiru, which orbits our sun evey 3,600 years arrived on earth some 450,000 years ago and created humans by genetic engineering of female apes. (Taken from World Mysteries web site.). Accordingly, one of their years equals 3,600 of ours. Sitchin`s time scale is that 450,000 yeas ago, on Nibiru the atmosphere was eroding and all life faced extinction. Their leaders found refuge on earth and discovered earth had gold which could be used to protect Nibiru`s atmosphere. The gold was mined and transported to Nibiru. This mining turned out to be hard work so the spacetravellers created primitive workers by the genetic manipulation of ape woman. about 300,000 BC. Many events follow of course in the next millenia, which we need not mention here. (See THE TWELFTH PLANET for more detail)  Events like the Flood, the Tower of Babel, the creation of Adam, fit into Sitchin`s time lines. According to the latter, there must be therefore another planet in our solar system from which the intelligent beings came who much later engaged in genetic engineering which resulted in Homo-sapiens by mixing their genes with those of primitive mankind.
Sitchin believes (with many others) that the biblical stories are based on much earlier Sumerian records. This is all in the past.  For the future, in about 3,440 AD the Nephilim are due to come back When they do, will they decide to give us more knowledge, more technical advancement or will they try to get rid of us as at the time of the Deluge. .


     The implication of all this is clear: humans are not the children of God but rather the children of the Annuki, (the toiler spacemen who came from Nibiru), If therefore humanity has questions it should look to the sky for answers – rather than leaders here on earth. Another implication is that space travel, genetic manipulation, computer science, maybe even cloning was known to our forefathers thousands of years ago. The first great civilisation is accepted to be Sumerian who it seems possessed profound knowledge which was given them by the Annuki, so they claim in their texts. So the logic of this is that we are not alone in the universe and that there are more advanced people than us in our solar system. Adam for example was created by what we now call a test tube (baby) process.
According to the Sumerians, there was a race of giants who existed on earth half a million years ago; their own texts prove that there was a civilisation (their own) on earth half a million years ago that was in advance of ours  today.
A quote from Sitchin: “I feel that just as the Nephilim/Annuki came down to earth and created us through genetic engineering and mixed their genes with those of ape-woman that one day we will go out in space and land on another planet somewhere and do the same thing”.(Interview, 1993)

     In THE TWELTH PLANET, Sitchin convincingly sets out his stall.  He considers Man`s earliest origins and examines the phenomenon of the development of civilisations and their apparent decline.  Then, later on, comes a resurgence: mankind seems to blossom again fairly quickly and reaches new levels of achievement, staggering in their harmony and complexity. In other words, progression is followed by regression – and then by a new flowering of genius. Apart from constructions, agriculture and domestication (of animals) developed.
Biblical and even more ancient records are examined in the light of modern development and in relation to his theories and convincing interpretations of mysterious passages are re-examined in this new light. For example, many biblical allusions are given new meaning when the thesis that much material is related to space events, other world beings, “visitations”, and so on, is regarded as feasible. Some such are the tales of Old Testament figures being assumed into heaven.
Sitchin claims there can be no doubt that the ancients in calling their deities “Gods of Heaven and Earth” meant literally that they were people from elsewhere who had come to earth from the heavens. “Even the ancient compilers of the Old Testament , who dedicated the Bible to a single God, found it necessary to acknowledge the presence upon earth in early times of such divine beings.” (p. 159) Thus the implication is that the sons of the gods who came down to earth from the heavens were the Nephilim – if the meaning of “Nephilim” is accepted: that they were the fallen ones (biblical meaning?) or alternatively , they were the ones cast down upon earth

If the drift of the above  is taken on board, a further implication (naturally) is that there exists another planet on which was established a far more advanced civilisation than ours: the planet of the Nephilim. Another quote is now needed in order to understand more fully Sitchin`s hypothesis.

     There can be little doubt that life on another planet would be timed to the cycles of that planet.If the trajectory of the Twelfth Planet around the sun were so extended that one orbit was completed in  the same time it takes earth to complete 100 orbits, then one year of the Nephilim would equal 100 of our years. If their orbit took 1000 times longer than ours then 1000 earth years would equal only one Nephilim year . And what if their orbit around the sun lasted 3600 earth years? Then 3600 of our years would amount to only one year in their calendar, and also only one year in their lifetime.(p. 227)
According to Sitchin it seems as if the Nephilim passed knowledge on to man in measured doses and did so in the intervals matching the periodic returns of the Twefth Planet to earth`s vicinity. They needed a “intermediary” (as Sitchin puts it ) and so they appointed a human ruler who “would assure Mankind`s service to the gods and channel the teachings and laws of the gods to the people.” (THE TWELFTH PLANET, p. 368) Kingship, statehood and civilisation developed. The two great civilisations of which we have records i.e. of the historical period, are of course Sumerian and Egyptian; these claims Sitchin were brought about by deliberate decision of the Nephilim.
The above is a mere outline of the theories advanced by Sitchin in his ground-breaking book.  Anyone interested in the origins (and future) of Man should read it. As we have mentioned, Sitchin is not by any means the only writer in this vein – he may be the best known.  Other scholars who advance similar themes are Von Daniken, Bauval, Hancock, West, Blavatsky, (and at least a dozen more.)
In chapter 17, we have looked at the phenomenon of the growth of civilisations,  their rise and decline  – and rebirth in some cases, when lost skills were rediscovered. Then we thought it opportune to examine some of the main ideas of Sitchin. Here the concepts of time and energy were considered. An explanation of humanity`s decline and fall lies in the periodic catastrophes/cataclysms that befell him, when everything was forgotten and he had to start anew. We then considered Mars as a possible source of life on earth either by “seeding” or by “jump-starting” (although not Sitchin`s  hypothesis). The concept of “God” was next examined. The main thesis of this section (devoted to the work of Sitchin) is that of interplanetary “visitations”. Then followed the idea of “chosen” ones (by the Nephilim) among humanity. Sitchin`s basic ideas were looked at. Sumerian records loom large in Sitchin`s thinking as indeed they do form a major part in the origination  of his theses. Finally we saw how the Nephilim passed on their knowledge  to humanity and in the process originated the ideas of a ruling class and kingship.
In the following and final chapter we shall be looking at the future for Man – what may it be like? What will it hold? The near – and distant future. Will there be a new civilisation – if the present one also declines to a nadir. Will there be a “new” human race? And if so will it be recognisable – or different? Will “the” gods and giant beings return? 

© A.B. Finlay Ph.D