Several times in the MBO essay the word “Systems” has been used, denoting that organisations can be thought of as types of (organic) systems in which they operate and within which they have influence; they have “boundaries” as limits to their operations but have a profound influence on the people who work within them.

It seems advantageous in the light of this statement to discuss the idea of an organization (especially educational but by no means exclusively) as a system and to look into the kinds of system characterising particular institutions. Accordingly, the next essay is concerned with thinking about various types of system – and is entitled as follows: